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Power Analyzer by Keysight
Power integrity analysis at design time.
Is it Simultaneous Switching Noise or Crosstalk?
How can you distinguish simultaneous switching noise and crosstalk? Take a look at the difference between these two signal integrity problems in this article.
Analog Signal Bandwidth and its Relation to Power Integrity
Here’s how your analog signal bandwidth interacts with your PDN, and how it affects power integrity.
PCB Debugging: Tips, Tools, and Tricks
There are some basic testing and PCB debugging steps you should take when your new prototype has some functionality and signal integrity problems.
Using an IPC-2221 PCB Clearance Calculator for High Voltage Design
PCB design and assembly standards aren’t there to constrain your productivity. Instead, they’re there to help create uniform expectations of product designs and performance across multiple industries. With standardization comes the tools for compliance, such as calculators for certain design aspects, processes for auditing and inspection, and much more. In high voltage PCB design, the important generic standard for PCB design is IPC-2221. Many
Living on the Edge (Rate) — It’s All About Time and Distance
The focus of this article is the clarify the origins of the phrase edge rate, what it really means relative to the design process and the best means for addressing it.
Power Consumption Optimization
Power efficiency—energy efficiency if you’re a purist—has become perhaps the highest-profile aspect of system design. This is especially true for IoT applications where a device may need to operate for years on harvested energy or a cell battery. Thus, a critical stage of design is power optimization. Typically, the first stage of power optimization is setting the power budget. For example, the system spec might state that the device has to be
EMI from Capacitor Heatsinks and What You Can Do About It
Selecting the right heatsink can help you keep your system cool and prevent EMI. While it may not be obvious, or while most designers may not think to check, heatsinks can generate EMI when they are connected to a switching element. This is a common problem in power supply design, and whenever a heatsink is placed in contact with a component that switches with high current draw at high frequency. Reducing EMI from heatsinks requires balancing the
Some Techniques for Suppressing DC-DC Converter EMI in IoT Products
This Li ion battery is most likely connected to a switching regulator to provide stable power. Suppressing EMI susceptibility in IoT devices from various sources is critical to ensuring your new product will work as designed. Similarly, your IoT product should limit spurious emissions if you want it to comply with EMC regulations. Among the various sources of radiated EMI from your next product, EMI within the device itself should also be
SMPS Circuit Design: Which Switching Frequency to Use?
Power supply on a network switch Power electronics and switched-mode power supply (SMPS) designers should know that working with higher switching frequencies can lead to higher switching losses in your system. However, the push to miniaturize power supplies, and the components that go into them, compels designers to work with higher switching frequencies in their SMPS circuit designs. This then creates problems where switching losses and noise
PCB Trace Width vs. Current Table for High Power Designs
Copper is a strong conductor with a high melting point, but you should still do your best to keep temperatures low. This is where you’ll need to properly size power rail widths to keep the temperature within a certain limit. However, this is where you need to consider the current flowing in a given trace. When working with a power rail, high-voltage components, and other portions of your board that are sensitive to heat, you can determine the
Radiated EMI Sources in High Speed/High Frequency PCBs
Radiated EMI measurements during EMC testing The image above shows a snapshot of results from an EMC test under CISPR requirements (U.S. uses FCC certification requirements). This product is right at the edge of Class B limits on radiated emissions. We can see a very complicated resonance spectrum in this plot with a large number of sharp peaks superimposed on wide peaks at lower level. What causes all of this radiated noise? There a number of
PDN Impedance Analysis and Modeling: From Schematic to Layout
Do you know the factors that determine the impedance of your PDN? Here’s what you need to know about PDN impedance analysis and modeling.
Length Matching for High-speed Signals: Trombone, Accordion, and Sawtooth Tuning
Once upon a time, length matching guidelines for high-speed signals required a designer with enough skill to remain productive when manually applying different trace-length turning schemes. With today's advanced interactive routing features in modern PCB design tools, designers no longer need to manually draw out length tuning structures in a PCB layout. The remaining choice for a designer is deciding which length-matching scheme to use: trombone
Never Cross a Ground Plane Gap in High Speed PCB Design
I often browse electronics and PCB forums, and I see the same question asked over and over: Why shouldn’t I route a trace over a split in my ground plane? This question gets asked by everyone from makers to professional designers who are just dipping their toes into high speed PCB design. For the professional signal integrity engineer, the answer should be obvious. Whether you’re a long-time PCB layout engineer or a casual designer, it helps to
The Role of a Decoupling, Inductors, and Resistance in a PDN
What is the role of a RF decoupling capacitor? Do I need a decoupling circuit for my PCB? Some designers might overlook the role of a decoupling, inductance, and resistance when designing their power distribution network.
Decoupling Capacitor Calculations: What Size Should You Use For Digital ICs?
Are these decoupling capacitors sized properly? Something that comes up repeatedly in PCB design guidelines, including high-speed digital design "gurus", is the need to find the proper decoupling capacitor size. This is sometimes addressed without a full understanding of what these caps are supposed to do in a PDN or their role in ensuring power integrity. I've also seen many application notes that default to the decades-old guideline of placing
Embedded System Power Supply Guidelines for Power Integrity
Embedded systems design and development is a broad area of electronics, spanning from developing code for an Arduino to designing custom computing systems with huge I/O count. On the more advanced end, where we see complex embedded systems for imaging, radar, modular computing, and edge computing, power regulator module design is a major determinant of system performance as it must ensure power integrity and signal integrity. These systems are